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SOME EDITORIAL COMMENTS ABOUT THE CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE 

BY FLOYD W. LaROUCHE 
In Charge of Information and Publications 

The story and pictures of the violent flood in New Mexico are especially 
significant because the Indians and the Indian Service were able to perform great ser- 
vice to the general public and also to protect Indian land and homes. As happens so 
often in such emergencies, the Indians quietly and unemotionally accomplished fantastic 
results, which few people knew about. Here in these pages we see one more chapter of 
the age-old story of Indians at work. The story was written by Doris C. Brodt from 
graphic reports submitted by Dr. Sophie D. Aberle, Superintendent, Unit9d Pueblos 
Agency. Still lacking are the final reports of total tangible damage. This and the 
plans for reconstruction must come later. 

Pictures on the front cover show: Porfirio Montoya (above), watchman of 
Santa Ana Pueblo, inspecting the dike protecting Santa Ana lands. And below; Santa Ana 
Indians placing sand bags to strengthen a weakened section on their dike, These and 
the photographs on pages U, 6, and 7 were made by Fred C. Clark, Jr., formerly of the 
United Pueblos Agency and now on a roving assignment for the Irrigation Division. Dur- 
ing the height of the flood Indians At Work was able to obtain the temporary services 
of Mr. Clark through the courtesy of C. H. Southworth, Acting Director of Irrigation. 

Almost like waging war, the upper picture on page U shows one of the many 
difficulties of maintaining communiep.tion and transportation. Constant rains hampered 
work of crews attempting to maintain the Santa Ana jetty, making roads slippery and 
extremely hazardous. In the lower picture on page U, Domingo Trujillo, Sandia Pueblo 
Indian, is going back for another load of furniture over a flooded highway. In the 
background are the storm clouds over the 10,000 foot peaks of Sandia Mountains. 

The Indian Service, and Indians At Work are especially indebted to Dick 
Boke, head of the Albuquerque Information Office of the Soil Conservation Service, for 
many graphic flood pictures. On page 9 we see homes in the San Felipe Pueblo sur- 
rounded by flood waters. On the back cover, a long line of Indian wagons are bringing 
earth to strengthen the dike at San Felipe. More than 120 Indians and 3C wagons worked 
endlessly on this job. Other pictures contributed by Mr. Boke are scheduled to appear 
in future issues. 

The article on the Plains Indian Museum was written by Eleanor B. Williams 
of the Indian Information staff, with material gathered on a recent visit to Browning, 
Montana. The photograph of the Blackfeet diorama on page 14 was made by Glen W. Peart, 
Interior Department photographer. The diorama itself was made by the Office of Ex- 
hibits of the Interior Department. 

The frontispiece is the work of Helen M. Post who has in this unusual pic- 
ture caught the atmosphere and the feeling of a Crow Indian dance. The reindeer pic- 
ture on page 20 was made by Ray B. Dame, head of the Photographic Section of the In- 
terior Department. The map which graphically portrays the current story of Indian 
CCC safety measures was made by Miss Mary Bovay of the CCC-ID staff. The lettering 
was done by Sam Attahvich. 

"From Creek County, Oklahoma," on page 30, is an item for which the materi- 
al was submitted by T. E. Reed, Education Field Agent at Okmulgee, Oklahoma. 



Note To Editors: 

Text in this magazine is available for reprinting 
as desired. Pictures will be supplied to the 

extent of their availability. 



INDIANS AT WORK 

in This Issue JULY ,941 

MBRAR\ r & 

Comments On The Contributions ."TrswrTT Inside Front Cover 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Farm Agent C. W. Rigney, Discusses A Farm 
Problem With A Chippewa Indian Of Red 
Lake , Minn. (Photo by Gordon Sommers ) 3 

Indians of New Mexico Fought A Monster Flood » 5 

A Fallon School Boy Learning The Use of 

Tools (Photo by Arthur Rothstein) 11 

Mrs. Young-Man-Afraid-Of -Horses Works On A 
Pair of Moccasins, Pine Ridge, S. D. 
(Photo by John Vachon) 12 

Plains Indians Have Museum Of Their Own 13 

"Bert Armstrong" Is Dead 15 

Sequoyah School Students, Oklahoma, Making 

Pottery (Photo by Peter Sekaer) 16 

Earl Rennicke Learns Gas Welding At Haskell 

Institute (Photo by Gordon H. Brown) 17 

Indian Clerk- In Agency Office At Sisseton, 

S. D. (Photo by John Vachon) 18 

Arctic Alaska And Its Reindeer Ranges Being 

Surveyed By New Forestry Director 19 

United States Ratifies Convention Creating 

Inter-American Institute Josef ina De Roman 21 

Roberta Moffett And Jack King Discuss An 
Accounting Problem At Haskell (Photo by 
Gordon H. Brown) 2U 

Indians In The News 25 

Navajo Mother And Baby (Photo by Peter Sekaer) 27 

Chilocco Student Working In School Print 

Shop (Photo by Peter Sekaer) 28 

Oil, Indians And Defense 29 

Apache Indians Enroute To Agency Headquarters 

(Photo by Frank Werner) 31 

Supai Mother And Child (Photo by Clifford 

Segerbloom) 32 

"The Warriors Come Out.. With Their Feathers 

And Paint" Grover C. Splitlog 33 

Safety Map Inside Back Cover 

OKITEO 5TATE5 DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR - OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS-WASHINGTON, D.C. 




¥11 




AT WORK 



A News Sheet For INDIANS and me INDIAN SERVICE 



VOLUME VIII 



JULY 1941 



NUMBER II 



A personal contact, and two books, have given me a deepened sense 
of life in these recent days. 

Helen Post, the noted photographer, supplied the personal con- 
tact; she has come back from two months at Rosebud and Pine Ridge, and 
she has not merely brought an enthusiasm for the Sioux Indians. She has 
brought a vivid dramatic realization, supported by a multitude of details, 
of the inward and onward movement of Sioux Indian life. It seemed to Helen 
Post - she is sure of it - that happiness welled from an ancient spring 
and flowed into a field of the future and that the field was glowing and 
rustling with corn and bloom. There among the Sioux, she saw the distress 
of poverty but she felt the happiness of the spirit. 



And this in no merely mystical sense. Activity in groups - mu- 
tuality - the relationship between young and old - and enthusiasm, and con- 
fidence in the future - these very human kinds of happiness were what she 
encountered. They made these two months seem like a period of heightened 
intensity in her own humanly rich life. 

And truly, is not the capacity for happiness the greatest wealth 
of all? It does not seem very much related to material wealth. But I dis- 
cussed Helen Post's impressions with Uillard Beatty and he remarked: 

Rosebud and Pine Ridge Indian lands support, directly and in- 
directly, thousands of white people who lease these lands. Not half of 
the Indian land there is used by the Indians themselves. If they used all 
of it, would not even their material situation become rather good? The 



answer is Yes. But the significance of Miss Post's observation is other 
and even greater than this. 



The two books are Kabloona, by Contran de Poncins, and My Es- 
kimo Life, by Paul-Emile Victor. The first tells of a year lived among 
Canadian Eskimos, the second of a year among Eskimos of Eastern Greenland. 
Both are by sensitive men (Frenchmen) who are competent scientists. Here 
is life seen devoid of nearly everything that "civilized" men consider es- 
sential to happiness or even to existence. And here is happiness such as 
neither of these observers had suspected to exist in this world. 



And here among the Eskimos, as among the Dakota Sioux, is found 
the inward essence of democracy. What richness of personality, what in- 
vincible capacity for happiness, this implicit, organic, profound democ- 
racy has brought'. Both of the Eskimo books are recommended to Service 
workers and to Indians. Kabloona is first choice. 



E. J. Armstrong has passed away. He had suffered much and long. 
There can never be regret in behalf of one who has entered "the peace which 
passeth understanding." But for themselves and for Indian Service, Bert 
Armstrong's co-workers feel a tender and lasting regret. He was so faith- 
ful, so human, and so able, and he gave himself without any limit to his 
task. Death is not sad, but it is very strange. 



J^X-. 




Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



Learning Through Pictures 

Rudolf Modley, President of Pictograph Corporation, New York 
City, and Consultant to the Education Division of the Office of Indian Af- 
fairs, has been appointed Consultant in the new defense agency, the Office 
of Production Management. Mr. Modley designed a series of posters for the 
Education Division which show the Navajo how to look after their homes, 
gardens, lands, and livestock. 

The Labor Division of OPM plans to use pictographs as an aid in 
the training of workers for defense industry. 




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In A Land Usually Parched And Dry, The Indians Of New Mexico Heroically 
Fought A Monster Flood Which Threatened White And Indian Communities 

The smashing, dangerous waters of the Rio Grande and its trib- 
utaries have receded, for a time at least, and the long battle waged against 
the tumultuous river by Indians and by many Government agencies, has ended. 
Those in threatened areas can breathe a little easier once more. The flood 
was caused by cloudbursts and the pouring down of tremendous amounts of 
water from melting snow in surrounding high altitudes. The toll of damage 
was very great, but not nearly as great as it might have been but for the 
long and heroic struggle of the flood-fighters. 

Homes Endangered 

The Rio Grande is a vital means of sustenance for residents of 
the State of New Mexico, whose numbers include Indians of 18 of the 19 
Pueblo villages. The homes of these Indians, their farms and stock, their 
shrines and ancient burying grounds and even their lives, were endangered 
by the torrents. Some of the Pueblos suffered more serious damage than 
others. For instance, at Santo Domingo, seven spans of the bridge washed 
out. At Jemez, the diversion dam was washed out and nearly 100 acres of 
irrigated land were totally destroyed. At Zia Pueblo, the river changed 
its channel as it receded, with the result that Zia will have no water for 
this year's crops. 

At Santa Ana Pueblo there was fear that the dike which held the 
Rio Grande could not be kept intact. Consequently, it became necessary to 
move the inhabitants and their belongings from their homes to those of 
friends living on higher ground. To make matters worse, several cases of 
measles and pneumonia developed among some of the Indians of this Pueblo. 
The Santa Ana Pueblo Day School was dismissed and turned into an emergency 
hospital within one hour after the village was evacuated. Throughout the 
Pueblo area generally, roads and bridges have been damaged, telephone lines 
torn down and river protection work destroyed. Dr. Sophie D. Aberle, Su- 
perintendent of the United Pueblos Agency received almost minute-by-minute 
reports from all stricken or threatened areas. She transmitted full and 
frequent reports to Washington. Here is one of them: 

Santa Ana Dike Kept Standing 

"May 22. The Indian Service was given the area along the Rio 
Grande to guard which is considered by Stanley Phillippi, Engineer of the 
■Middle Rio Grande Conservancy District, as the most difficult on the river. 
It is at a point where the Jemez River empties into the Rio Grande and cre- 
ates a heavy current. This dike, at Santa Ana Pueblo, protects not only 
Santa Ana, but the whole town of Bernalillo. And the dike at Santa Ana has 
been kept standing. Two other dikes much less difficult to hold (at Pol- 
vadero and at Lemitar) have gone out. These breaks resulted in large areas 



around Belen and Socorro being flooded. The dike at Santa Ana has held, 
regardless of the difficulty, and we hope it will not break during this 
flood. 

"There has been so much heroism among all the people, both Indian 
and white, on the staff that it is very difficult to single out any indi- 
vidual case. 

Six-Hour Shifts 

"The men are asked to work in six-hour shifts and sleep six hours, 
work another six hours and then another sleep period. However, because of 
so much emergency work, many of the men have slept only two or three hours 
during the four or five day period. When their time for leaving the work 
arrived, if the breaks were bad, they were asked to stay on, with never a 
murmur from anybody objecting to this arduous work. 

"The foremen on the job are gray with fatigue, but I believe that 
one more day's work will result in making a new dike which will safely hold 
the river in check. 

Santa Ana Indians Enjoying Lunch In Deserted Ranch House Used For A Camp 





Santa Ana School Was Turned Into An Emergency Hospital 

"Monday afternoon, May 20, at 20 minutes to four, word came 
through to the Agency that possibly the Santa Ana dike would not hold. By 
6 o'clock all the people from homes which might be affected by that flood, 
had moved out to the Santa Ana Day School and to the Albuquerque Boarding 
School in Albuquerque. They had moved out without fuss or confusion or 
protests - quietly and orderly. 

School Became Emergency Hospital 

"Last night I visited the school room of the Santa Ana Day School, 
where cots have been arranged in rows for the children to sleep. Four of 
the children are sick with measles. I talked to the families of those 
groups in an effort to get them to come to Albuquerque so that they could 
put the children in the hospital. Especially crucial was last night because 
we thought certainly the dike would break. Two families came willingly. 
One man utterly refused to go. He is sitting by his son, who has measles 
and a fever of about 1030, and says he must stay there and pray. If he 
goes away, his prayers will not have the same effect and he cannot let his 
son go without him, and the mother is dead. The other family consists of 
old people, who also think they must remain near the water in order to keep 
it appeased. 



8 



"A temporary kitchen has been placed in the school, and the tea- 
chers are running it. Cooking is done for all the Santa Ana people who have 
had to leave their homes. They serve meals to about 100 a day at that 

kitchen. 

"Yesterday, heavy rains fell in the vicinity of Santa Ana and to- 
day we are still having more. The river was high. I stood on the sand dike 
with the bags piled to the river's edge. I could see long lines of men, in 
pairs, carrying a stick with a heavy sand bag slung over the center, back 
and forth, back and forth, piling sand bags and more sand bags. Thousands 
have been dropped into this point at the river's edge. 

Roads Impassable 

"It was raining, many trucks were mired in the mud. Our car got 
stuck, so I abandoned it and walked. A foreman was blue with cold, and 
shaking. Everybody was wet to the skin and shivering. We bought raincoats 
for them, but in spite of the raincoats and the heavy wind it was impossible 
to keep dry. The chocolate-colored river was roaring, and the waves some 
five feet high would change position as you watched them from one area to 
another. Then after the great waves had formed, the water next to the bank 
rose and -fell threateningly, and this is the current which pulls the sand 
from the bank and results in the dike giving way. 

"The men on the different shifts get their food at a temporary 
camp by the side of the road. When it rained so hard yesterday, we moved 
the camp into an abandoned brick building by the side of the highway on the 
San Felipe Reservation. Rehabilitation food that we canned two years ago 
is being used, with canned fruit and bread, and nice, good, thick coffee. 
The Range Riders are running this camp. 

"Through it all, the morale is wonderful - people laughed and 
joked though tired and hungry. Some of the foremen have become so fatigued 
they cannot sleep even when they do go home at night. 

Bernalillo Saved By Indians 

"I believe the thing that is of most importance is that the pro- 
tection of the Santa Ana dike has meant the protection of the town of Bern- 
alillo, the old Mission School and the old Mission at Bernalillo, the cem- 
etery at Bernalillo where the heroes of the past are buried; and the homes 
of hundreds of Bernalillo farmers are being protected because of the In- 
dians' and the Indian Service's work." 

During this emergency many agencies of the Government cooperated 
in all phases of flood control work, furnishing men and equipment. They 
were the Forest Service, the Middle Rio Grande Conservancy District, the 
Soil Conservation Service, the National Park Service, the National Re- 



sources Planning Board, the Weather Bureau, the Works Progress Administra- 
tion, the State Adjutant General's Office, the Grazing Service, New Mexico 
State agencies and the Indian Service. 

Crews Worked Day And Night 

When it became apparent that a real flood danger existed, the In- 
dian Service, through its United Pueblos Agency at Albuquerque, immediately 
began to organize emergency relief crews. The job was quickly and thorough- 
ly done. Hundreds of Indians and whites alike were employed in fighting 
encroachments of the stream. There was much to be done. Yes, and in a 
hurry. Crews worked night and day constructing barriers against the river 
or diverting it from towns and villages. Boats, trucks, planking, sacks, 
brush, rubber boots, ropes, food and other equipment and supplies had to be 
assembled and transported to points of danger. There were dikes to be 
strengthened, jetties maintained and levees to be sand-bagged. The swirling 
currents made constant vigilance necessary, for there were many spots that 
caused anxiety in the Pueblo area. Most important of all was the saving of 
human life. Indians and their belongings had to be evacuated from their 
homes in threatened localities. They had to be fed from emergency kitchens. 
All of this and much more was accomplished, and with the extreme hazards 
that such work entails, only one life has been reported lost. 

A call to the Governor of the Santo Domingo Pueblo for 25 men to 
help with control work at Santa Ana and to be paid for their work brought 50 
instead of 25, and all volunteered to work without pay. San Felipe was 

San Felipe Pueblo Homes Isolated By Rising Flood Waters 




10 



asked to donate 10 men; they sent 40. Indians in other Pueblos volunteered 
to give their services as the need required, working faithfully for long 
hours at a stretch. One Indian worked for 72 hours with only two hours of 
sleep. Such sacrifices were not uncommon, and it was only such loyal ty as 
this that kept losses as low as they were. 

Many Contributed Services 

Many others, too, made their contributions during the flood emer- 
gency. The Red Cross was prepared to care for thousands of evacuees should 
the necessity occur. Cooperation from both Albuquerque radio stations and 
the use of a sound truck to patrol threatened areas broadcasting alarm were 
made available. The Santa Fe Railway made cars available for the hauling of 
timber and brush and also, ordered workmen at some of the critical points 
to stand by to give assistance. 

Plans for immediate repair and reconstruction work on damaged ir- 
rigation, road and other structures kave gone forward. The work of direct- 
ing the course of the river back into its original channel is under way. 
This is being done by stretching cable supported by tripods along the entire 
length of the break and then attaching heavy brush to the cable. This is a 
very difficult and important part of the rehabilitation program. 

All agencies and individuals as well, were congratulated by John 
Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for their untiring efforts and 
splendid cooperation in the attempt to save Pueblo Indian land and other 
property and that of their white neighbors. 

And now that the Rio Grande has subsided, serious thought is being 
given to the possibility of a recurrence. Equally serious and more imme- 
diate thought is being given to the heavy task of reconstruction. 



Mrs. David E Thomas Dies 

Mrs. Ada M. Thomas, the wife of David E. Thomas, Administrative 
Assistant to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, died June 17, at her home 
in Washington, D. C. 

Mrs. Thomas was born in Nova Scotia, and came to Washington as 
a bride in 1909, from Quincy, Massachusetts. Besides her husband, she is 
survived by two sons, David and Robert Thomas, two brothers and a sister. 



Henry Williams, Jr. Learns To 
Handle Tools. Fallon, Nevada. 







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13 
Now The Indians Of The Plains Have A Museum Of Their Own 

When the Blackfeet and neighboring Plains Tribes threw up their 
teepees for their annual Fourth of July encampment at Browning, Montana, 
they found a brand new building within a few hundred yards of their rodeo 
and camp grounds. 

The modern brick structure, recently completed with $150,000 of 
P.W.A. funds, houses the new Museum of the Plains Indian. It is the larg- 
est Government project yet undertaken to aid native groups in reviving their 
crafts and to furnish them an outlet for the marketing and sale of their 
goods. 

Dedicated June 29 

The new building was formally opened and dedicated June 29 by Dr. 
Willard Beatty, Director of Indian Education, and John C. Ewers, Acting 
Curator of the Plains Indian Museum, on loan to the Indian Service from the 
National Park Service. 

The encouragement of native crafts is one step in the Government's 
present program of assisting Indian groups towards economic independence. 
Almost every tribe in the Plains Area has established a crafts building or 
set aside rooms for crafts shops in agency buildings. 

In the Dakota country a crafts building is located at the Rosebud 
Indian Agency, South Dakota, and another at the Oglala Boarding School on 
the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota. Several rooms at the Flandreau 
Indian School, Flandreau, Qouth Dakota, and at the Indian Museum in Rapid 
City, South Dakota, serve as craft shops. The Gros Ventre and Assiniboine 
Tribes on the Fort Belknap Reservation, Montana, have recently taken over 
and decorated the old agency headquarters, near Harlem, Montana, where part 
of the building is used as a meeting place for the tribal council and the 
balance for crafts rooms. The Kootenai and Salish Tribes on the Flathead 
Reservation in western Montana recently voted to donate tribal funds for 
the organization of a crafts association. Also efforts are being made to 
set up a crafts salesroom at the Fort Peck Indian Agency, Poplar, Montana. 

Blackfeet Have Log Cabin 

Crafts workers among the Blackfeet Nation, whose reservation in 
northern Montana borders Canada, were the first group in the Plains Area 
to organize an association and take over a building for summer sales. The 
building is a log cabin, located on the Park highway, just outside Glacier 
Park, at St. Mary's. During the three summer months, Blackfeet craft work- 
ers pitch their teepees along the highway adjacent to the log cabin, dress 
in buckskin garments, and work at their crafts, creating a camp scene rem- 
iniscent of pioneer days. Their crafts business has jumped from a $1,000 
enterprise when it got under way in 1936 to $8,000 in the summer of 19^0. 
With a sales outlet now established at both the Plains Museum and their 
own shop in St. Mary's, the Blackfeet expect to double their income from 
crafts this coming summer. 



H 



Goods from all the smaller shops throughout the Plains Area will 
find their way to the Museum of the Plains Indian. The building is one of 
the largest of its kind in the Northwest. Built of brick, it is a long two- 
story building, containing many rooms for the Museum exhibits, for demon- 
stration by Indians of current craft techniques, and for sales, assembly, 
and shipping offices. 

Murals Of The Buffalo Hunt 

Iron grilles decorating the entrance to the building are Sioux 
in design and painted in vivid colors. They were constructed by Sioux boys 
from the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota, who are operating a metal 
trades cooperative at the Fort Sill Boarding School, Oklahoma. 

The Museum exhibits will stress the importance of the buffalo in 
Plains life, its use in crafts as well as its relation to ceremonial life 
and customs. In the spacious entrance lobby, 30-year-old Victor Pepion II, 
member of a distinguished Blackf eet family, will paint in four murals the 
various aspects of the buffalo hunt. Visitors are invited to watch him 
work. 










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15 



"BERT" ARMSTRONG IS DEAD 



Mr. E. J. Armstrong, Assistant Business Manager and Assistant 
Finance Officer of the Office of Indian Affairs since 1935, died of a heart 
ailment in Garfield Hospital in Washington, on June 15. His funeral in 
Alexandria, Virginia, two days later, was attended by hundreds of friends 
in the Indian Service and outside. 

Mr. Armstrong attended elementary school in Maryland, and Eastern 
High School in Washington, D. C. Later he went to Syracuse University and 
was graduated with a B. S. degree from Michigan Agricultural College, now 
Michigan State College, in East Lansing, Michigan. He was a member of Cen- 
tennial Masonic Lodge No. 174, of Upper Marlboro, Maryland. He had served 
in the Thirty-third Field Artillery during the World War. On leaving the 
Army he was employed for a time in the War Department and entered the In- 
dian Service as a clerk in October 1919. He was advanced by reason of his 
ability and efficiency through various grades until his promotion to As- 
sistant Finance Officer six years ago. 

In spite of a long illness he persisted in his work and remained 
on duty up to a few days before his death. Known to hundreds of Indians 
and employees in all parts of the Service, Mr. Armstrong was extremely pop- 
ular with both the Indians and the personnel of the Indian Service and the 
Department of the Interior. 

Some of his old friends in the Indian Office contributed this 
simple eulogy: 

"His understanding of and sympathy with personal and official 
problems endeared him to all. He gave unstintingly of his time and of him- 
self. There is probably no one in the Washington Office who has not, con- 
sciously or unconsciously, benefited from his understanding and thoughtful- 
ness, and this has extended to countless Indians who have visited Washing- 
ton or whom his interest has touched. His wide knowledge and experience in 
fiscal matters caused Indians, his associates, and superintendents alike to 
seek his judgment and guidance. With a quiet softness that was both sooth- 
ing and convincing, and a smile that was friendly, he could convey more 
meaning than almost anyone. With a loyalty that was not overcome by others, 
he supported the organization with which he worked. With full consideration 
for all, he helped work out difficult situations so that no one was hurt and 
the Government's interests were forwarded. His solemn humor was such as to 
make the heart rejoice even before he spoke, and what he did not say but was 
shown in the twinkle of his eyes or the barely discernible smile was even 
more effective than the spoken word. The regard in which he was held by the 
people in the field as well as by those in the Washington Office was unsur- 
passed by any and equaled by few. He was one of the best loved and most 
respected employees in the Indian Service and long will hold a place of af- 
fection in the memory of all who knew him. 

"We will all miss him sorely. " 




JL 



Students Of Sequoyah School, Oklahoma, 
Add Finishing Shape To Their Pottery 
Before Baking It. 



Earl Rennicke, Snohomish Indian Of 
Tulallp r Washington, Learns Gas Welding 
At Haskell Institute, Lawrence , Kansas. 





A Full-Blood Indian Clerk In The 
Agency Off ice At Sisseton, S. D. 



19 



Arctic Alaska And Its Reindeer Ranges Are Being 
Surveyed By The New Forestry Director 

Leroy D. Arnold has become so intimately familiar with the admin- 
istration of Indian forest and grazing lands that his recent appointment as 
Director of Forestry finds him well prepared. 

He began his career in the Indian Service 24 years ago as a forest 
guard, and so he brings to his position wide knowledge of millions of acres 
of forest and grazing lands owned by Indians throughout the country. Last 
spring the former director, Lee Muck, was made Director of Forests for the 
Department of the Interior and subsequently Assistant to the Secretary in 
Charge of Land Utilization. Mr. Arnold ha3 been Acting Director of Indian 
Forestry and Grazing since Mr. Muck was moved up. As a technical adviser 
to John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Mr. Arnold supervises the 
use and conservation of a forest and range area equivalent in size to all 
the New England states from Rhode Island to Maine, plus two-thirds of New 
Jersey. These Indian lands are scattered in 20 states, mostly west of the 
Mississippi. 

Reared In Kansas 

Livestock and timber constitute chief sources of income for In- 
dians in western states. In line with the present governmental policy of 
conserving natural resources, Mr. Arnold will supervise selective cutting 
on Indian forests and controlled use of the range lands. 

Reared on a Kansas ranch, Mr. Arnold taught in the public schools 
of that state for several years before entering the University of Michigan 
Forestry School. Graduating in 1917, he entered the Indian Service as a 
forest guard at the Warm Springs Agency in Oregon. He remained in forestry 
and range management work until 1925, when he was appointed Superintendent 
of the Klamath Indian Agency in Oregon, which position included extensive 
forestry and range activities. He remained there six years, until 1931, 
when he was appointed Assistant to the Director of Forestry in the Washing- 
ton Office. 

Now In Alaska 

Soon after his appointment by Secretary Ickes, Mr. Arnold left 
Washington to make a survey of the grazing situation in Alaska. The grazing 
lands of Alaska are the home of the reindeer, first introduced .from Siberia 
late in the last century as a source of food and clothing for the Eskimo. 
The reindeer industry grew rapidly, but white commercial operators began to 
acquire large herds, and with their wholesale methods of exploitation, dis- 
putes arose between the natives and non-natives as to ownership, range con- 
trol and other matters. 



20 



Added to this, about three years ago, marauding wolves began 
slaughtering thousands of reindeer, the range lands faced serious deteriora- 
tion, and the Eskimos were threatened with the disappearance of their live- 
lihood. 

To protect Alaska's grazing lands and the needs of its growing 
native population, the Department of the Interior about a year ago pur- 
chased all non-native -owned reindeer and is now turning the reindeer in- 
dustry back to native herdsmen. With the removal of commercial interests, 
the Indian Service is able to distribute and protect the reindeer to pro- 
vide subsistence for the native population and also prevent further deter- 
ioration of the range. 

To Cover Entire Reindeer Country 

It will be Mr. Arnold's job to cover the entire reindeer country, 
and on his return to Washington, make recommendations for regulating the 
use of _the grazing lands along sound range management principles. He will 
remain in the Territory from six to eight weeks, traveling by plane. The 
reindeer country is the coastal region stretching from Demarcation Point 
on the Arctic Ocean to Ugashik on Bristol Bay near the base of the Alaska 
Peninsula. Herds are also found on certain of the Aleutian Islands and on 
Kodiak Island. 

A. C. Cooley, Director of the Indian Extension Service, Frank B. 
Lenzie, Regional Forester and John M. Cooper, Director of the Southwestern 
Range and Sheep Breeding Laboratory at Fort Wingate, New Mexico, are also 
in Alaska. 



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21 



United States Ratifies Convention Creating Inter-American Institute 

By Josefina De Roman 

Ratification of the Convention establishing the Inter-American In- 
dian Institute was unanimously approved by the United States Senate on May 
26, 194-1. The Convention is a result of the First Inter-American Confer- 
ence on Indian Life held last year at Patzcuaro, Mexico, where once flour- 
ished the model Indian communities established by the Spanish priest, Fath- 
er Vasco de Quiroga. 

Soon after the Patzcuaro Conference, the Inter-American Indian 
Institute was provisionally organized in Mexico City, pending the ratifi- 
cation of the Convention by the various nations. Moises Saenz was chosen 
as provisional director of the Institute, and Carlos Giron Cerna as secre- 
tary. Luis Chavez Orozco of Mexico; John Collier of the United States; 
David Vela of Guatemala; Roquete Pinto of Brazil; Uriel Garcia of Peru; and 
Antonio Diaz Villamil of Bolivia, were appointed to form the provisional 
Executive Committee. 

Now that the United States has ratified the Convention, and as 
soon as this and four other countries have deposited their ratifications 
with the Mexican Government, (Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador, and possibly 
one other country have already ratified) it will be possible, under the 
provisions of the Convention, to establish the Inter-American Indian In- 
stitute on a permanent basis, once the ratifying countries have appointed 
their representatives to the governing board and the board elects the In- 
stitute director. 

Functions Of The Inter-American Indian Institute 

The Institute will act as a standing committee for the Inter-Am- 
erican Indian Conference, will be custodian of reports, papers, and archives 
of the Conference; conduct scientific research on Indian problems; report 
on the activities of institutions interested in Indian groups, and on rec- 
ommendations made by Indians on matters of concern to them and to their 
people, and collect material that may be of use to American governments 
in their efforts to improve economic and social standards of living in In- 
dian communities. 

It will encourage the exchange of technicians and experts, and 
will act as a coordinating agency for the training of men and women experts 
on the problems of the Indian. 

In short, it is to be a center for the dissemination of informa- 
tion on various aspects of Indian culture and of Indian problems, anu a 
center for exchange and study of ideas, methods and programs developed by 
each of the governments in dealing with their Indian populations. 



22 



With this in mind, the Institute will publish a periodical and 
will help to spread familiarity with Indian cultures through exhibits, rec- 
ords, films and broadcasts. Already the Institute has made tentative ar- 
rangements for broadcasts and recordings of music of Mexican Indians. 

The Institute, which will be financed by the annual quotas of the 
member nations, is to be administered by a governing board, an executive 
committee, and a director. The governing board exercises supreme control 
over the Institute and is composed of one technical expert and one substi- 
tute from each country. The executive committee, in which are vested the 
executive powers of the Institute, is composed of five regular members and 
a substitute for each, all elected for a period of five years, although 
elections are arranged so that two-fifths of the members are renewed at 
one election, and three-fifths at another. Each committee member must come 
from a different nation, so that five countries are represented. 

Mexican And United States Representatives Sign 
Document Creating Inter- American Institute. 




23 



The director acts as secretary of the executive committee and 
has the right to be heard, but not to vote. All budgetary and personnel 
matters are handled by him, and it is he who decides on the plans, work, 
and activities of the Institute, within the general program determined by 
the executive committee. 

National Institutes 

Nations subscribing to the Convention are to set up and finance 
national institutes whenever they find this advisable. These national In- 
dian institutes, of course, will be affiliated with the Inter-American In- 
dian Institute, and will act as clearing houses for information on Indian 
matters in each country. They will stimulate public interest in Inter-Am- 
erican Indian matters, and will conduct studies of interest to the partic- 
ular nation concerned. 

The Office of Indian Affairs, in order that the United States 
might effectively cooperate with the Inter-American Indian Institute, cre- 
ated a Division of Inter-American Cooperation, and it is hoped that this 
country's national institute will soon be established. 

Conferences On Indian Life 

In addition to creating the Inter-American Indian Institute and 
providing for the establishment of national Indian institutes, the Conven- 
tion provides for an Inter-American Conference on Indian Life at least ev- 
ery four years. The next one will probably be held high in the Andes, at 
Cuzco, Peru, in 191*2. 

Delegates appointed by the member countries and a representative 
of the Pan American Union, comprise the Conference. However, individuals 
concerned with Indian affairs may be invited by the organizing government 
to attend the Conference as observers. 

Any Government wishing to withdraw from the convention may do so 
at any time by notifying the Mexican Government, although the denunciation 
will not have effect until one year after it has been received. 



New Mexico Indians In Old Mexico 

A group of New Mexico State Indian students on a good will visit 
to old Mexico gave a program of tribal dances in the National Palace of Fine 
Arts under the sponsorship of the Mexican Department of Indian Affairs. Many 
government officials were present and witnessed with warm entnusiasm the per- 
formance of several ceremonial dances by these young New Mexico Indians, who 
were clad in their picturesque native costumes. Albuquerque . New Mexii 
The Journal. 6/9 Al. 




Roberta Moffet And Jack King Discuss 
An Accounting Problem In Model Agency 
Set-Up At Haskell Institute. 



25 



Indians In the News 



Employees of the Office of Indian Affairs, white traders and the 
natives of villages and posts in Arctic Alaska will get their usual quota 
of winter supplies this season, despite the transfer of the well-known 
motorship North Star to the Coast Guard. The steamship Bering of the Alaska 
Line, scheduled to sail July 20, will move the freight north this year and 
will stow cargo for Government posts from Kotzebue to Point Barrow. Seattle , 
Washington . The Post Intelligencer . 5/23/^1 . 

The Browning Lions Club has voted in favor of sponsoring a move 
to set aside some of the historic spots on the Blackfeet Reservation, thus 
protecting them from obliteration. There are many such places now known, 
which in the not far distant future may be destroyed or lost sight of if. 
steps are not taken to preserve them. Great Falls , Montana . The Tribune . 

5/ii/q . 



After a century of isolation, Florida's proud Seminole Indians 
finally are adopting of their own accord, the ways of the white man. They 
have turned to cattle raising instead of hunting as the chief means of ob- 
taining food. Slowly but surely, with the aid of the Department of the In- 
terior, the Seminoles are forgetting longstanding grievances against Uncle 
Sam. The Cow Creek Seminoles have built up the largest and one of the best 
Hereford herds in the State - 2,100 head - and recently sold $4,000 worth 
of stock to Florida ranchers. The tribal herd is a cooperative enterprise 
controlled by the Indian Livestock Association, of which all officers are 
Seminole Indians. The change from a primitive life in the Florida Ever- 
glades to one of peaceful ranching has taken generations to bring about, 
but now that it is really under way the Indians seem to like it. 

Another encouraging development has been the decision of the Sem- 
inoles, reached at a formal meeting of the tribe, to lift the ban against 
attending the white man's schools. The schools still present a problem, as 
instructors with a knowledge of the Seminole tongue are not available. But 
by using visual education methods, this handicap is being overcome. Atlantic 
City , New Jersey . The Press . 5/23/41 . 

"No goals are valid or desirable in Indian affairs that are not 
shared goals - objectives in which the Indians can take an active part," 
said Dr. W. Carson Ryan at the Indian Affairs Forum of the National Con- 
ference of Social Work held the early part of June in Atlantic City. Dr. 
Ryan, head of the Department of Education of the University of North Caro- 
lina, was formerly Director of Education in the United States Indian Serv- 
ice. In his address, Dr. Ryan stated that the most hopeful sign in Indian 



26 



administration of the past decade was the way the blind authoritarianism of 
1820, which insisted that "our opinion, not the Indians' , ought to prevail 
in measures intended for their civilization and happiness", has finally 
given way to a concept of the Indian himself as having significant values 
for modern society. Dr. Ryan referred to the Meriam Survey of 1928, which 
emphasized the existence of two groups of Indians - those that can fit into 
the social and economic life of the prevailing civilization as developed by 
the whites, and those Indians, who, proud of their race and devoted to their 
culture and mode of life, have no desire to be as the white men. "But," he 
said, "the Meriam report did not go as far as Indian administrations have 
gone since, in not only reconciling these two types of situations, but in 
making clear that both can ideally exist together. Indians can be Indians 
in the best sense, believing in certain fundamentals of life, and still take 
advantage of modern gadgets; whites can stick to modern machine developments 
and still, we hope, learn from the Indians. Boston , Massachusetts . The 
Christian Science Monitor . 6/7/4-1 . 

Commemorating three-quarters of a century of friendship between 
the Latter Day Saints colonizers and the Indians of Northern Arizona, a mon- 
ument stands today at Tuba City, Arizona, dedicated to Chief Tuba of the 
Hopi tribe. The aid that Chief Tuba gave the early colonizers and the long 
record of friendship between the Indians and the Mormon Church inspired the 
erection of this monument honoring his memory. It is of red native sand- 
stone, is studded with turquoise and bears a bronze plaque. Salt Lake City , 
Utah . The Desert News . 5/12/A1 . 

Yakima Indians are displaying genuine sportsmanship and proving 
that they are true conservationists in cooperating with the State Department 
of Fisheries in refraining from taking salmon trapped by low water. Had they 
so desired, the Yakimas, shielded by Federal treaty, could have netted the 
fish, and by doing this imperiled an important food resource. Yakima , Wash - 
ington . The He-raid . 6/4-/4-1 . 

The American Indian knew a thing or two at the time of the arrival 
of the White men at Plymouth Rock. When drying his fish or meat to preserve 
it, the Red man would lower two young saplings, tie a rope between them, 
fasten his food to the rope, then allow the saplings to spring back and 
raise his provisions into the air. Investigation shows that the food always 
was suspended 31 feet above the ground. And for a good reason - the flies 
would not get at it. Several hundred years later science tells us that the 
ordinary house fly, unaided and of its own accord, does not rise more than 
32 feet above the ground. Yes, the Indian was a clever man. Wall Street 
News. May , 1941. 




2T7 







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Navajo? Are Increasingly Demanding Medical Attention, 
Whereas A Generation Ago Many Hesitated To Go To Hospitals. 
Gee Bah Smith And Her Newborn Baby Are Shown Here In The 
Indian Service Hospital At Fort Defiance, Arizona . 




An Indian Student At Chilocco School Learns 
To Operate A Paper Folding Machine 
In The School Print Shop 



29 

Oil, Indians And Defense 

Much has been written in recent months of the part Indians are 
playing in national defense. But with such great stress being placed on 
the need of petroleum products which are so vital in this defense emergency, 
and the threatened shortage of these products in the Atlantic Coast states, 
Indians may play an increasingly important role by virtue of the oil de- 
deposits on their lands. 

During the 1940 fiscal year approximately 22,000,000 barrels of 
oil were produced on Indian lands, coming mainly from the oil fields of the 
Five Civilized Tribes and Osage Agencies in Oklahoma, in the heart of the 
country, close to the central markets and to transportation facilities. 

Secretary Ickes States The Problem 

In a recent radio broadcast, Secretary of the Interior Harold L. 
Ickes, who was recently appointed Petroleum Coordinator for National Defense 
by President Roosevelt, fully outlined the oil conservation problem which 
the Government and the people jointly are facing. 

"...There is no cause for excitement or hysteria. We are not go- 
ing to have to put away our automobiles. We are not going to freeze this 
winter. But everyone in the Eastern States - and I mean everyone - must 
start right now to be careful with gasoline and oil... 

"...I hope everyone will understand that this nation has plenty 
of petroleum - more than any nation in the world - enough for us and for 
all the other democracies. But we haven't got enough on the East Coast 
right now to meet all of the normal needs of East Coast consumers. 

Transportat ion Problem 

"...The question is how we are to get a sufficient supply of pe- 
troleum and its products out of our abundant supply - to the East Coast. 
We need more gasoline and oil in this East Coast area, but we haven't got 
sufficient means of transportation to get supplies to the market. Our real 
job is to get more transportation and put it into operation. 

"The normal method for supplying the East Coast with oil and gas- 
oline is by tanker. Ordinarily, about 250 tankers are engaged in moving 
petroleum and its products from the Gulf States up the East Coast... Then 
came the Battle of the Atlantic. ...British tankers were sunk and American 
tankers were thrown into the breach to haul oil and gasoline to where the 
British could pick it up. Fifty American tankers are being transferred 
to this duty. And so now we have only 200 tankers to haul oil around to 
the East Coast and that isn't enough. ...Probably there will be less before 
long. So the normal method for supplying the East Coast has been put out 



30 



of joint and our job is to find additional means to get petroleum to this 
market. 

"We Can All Save . . . " 

"...By following a few simple rules, we can all save on gaso- 
line and oil. We can avoid unnecessary driving of our automobiles. When 
we do drive, we can drive at a reasonable speed. We can avoid hasty get- 
aways after stops. We can have our carburetors adjusted so that the en- 
gine operates most efficiently. ...Again, in the operation of oil burners 
and oil furnaces, a few simple precautions by home owners will enable them 
to save considerable amounts of heating oil. Have the burner or the furnace 
adjusted properly - so that it will operate efficiently. Then don't try 
to make a hothouse out of your home - keep it a little cooler. 

"...The Federal Government will take every action it is possible 
to devise to ease the deficiency and to get more supplies to market. We 
have our sleeves rolled up and we are pitching in with a will to win. If 
the people of this country will go in for a strong dose of good old-fash- 
ioned American cooperation - we will come out on top." 



From Creek County, Oklahoma 



The honor student of 
the graduating class of the Drum- 
bright High School in Creek Coun- 
ty, Oklahoma, is eighteen-year- 
old Geraldine Georgette Tolbert, 
a Cherokee Indian, whose photo- 
graph is shown at the right. 

The Principal of the 
school, Mr. A. C. Wiemer, says, 
"She is the high ranking student 
in the class of a hundred and 
four students, having maintained 
an "A" average throughout the 3| 
years of high school work." 

Another I nd i an girl, 
Mary Frances Tiger, a Creek, who 
is graduating from the Wilson 
High School, is the high ranking 
student in her class of sixty- 
three. 






Two Apaches Meet On Road 
En Route To Agency Headquarters , 
Fort Apache Reservation 




Deep In Their Beautiful Canyon, The Little Tribe 
Of Havasupai Indians Of Arizona Have Worked 
Out Their Own Pattern Of Life. This Young Mother 
And Child Typify The S tardiness Of The Tribe. 



33 
"The Warriors Come Out... With Their Feathers And Paint" 

By Grover C. Splitlog 
Chief, Seneca-Cayuga Tribe 

When the Creator, as we call Him, The Great Father, or as our 
white friends call Him, God, created this earth where we live, he put these 
people here to live. He put game here of all kinds which the Indians lived 
on for many years. There were many kinds of seeds that produced different 
kinds of food used in many different ways. 

He put many kinds of fruit to be used for food here; strawberries 
and blackberries which are used in our ceremonies; corn which is very use- 
ful to the Indians and is used for food in many different ways, of which 
hominy is one. 

First Ceremony Is In April 

The first ceremony, held in April, is called the War Dance or Sun 
Dance » This dance is held in the spring of the year when the Indians plant 
their seeds and they ask for rain. This dance is to bring the memory to 
their tribesmen or their people to pray and ask the Great Father to send 
them rain and sunshine to produce the seeds which they have planted and the 
fruits and plants of all kinds. Beef and hominy are served to feast on. 

The next ceremony is held in May which is the Strawberry Dance. 
When the strawberries get ripe they crush them, extracting the juice which 
is passed around the group while they are giving thanks to the Great Father 
for sending them this great fruit. Ceremonial dances are being danced while 
the ceremony is being given and then they pass out the beef and hominy. 
Ceremonial dances and songs follow all the way through. 

Blackberry Dance In July 

The Blackberry Dance is held in July. It has practically the 
same meaning as the Strawberry Dance. They drink the juice and make noodles 
out of the berries. When this is passed out they again give thanks to the 
Great Father for the fine fruits. Ceremonial songs and dances follow all 
the way through. The Indians dance all night until the sun rises the next 
morning. They have another ceremony thanking The Great Father again. Beef 
and hominy are again served. 

Next comes the annual Green Corn Feast which is held in August 
after all the rest have been held. The annual Green Corn Feast is the an- 
nual Thanksgiving. The Indians take their corn, vegetables, melons and 
fruits and pile them up in the middle of the dancing ring. A beef is killed 
and they make green corn soup out of the beef and green corn and set it in 



34 



the ring to show what they are giving thanks for. The ceremonies and the 
dances come next. During the ceremony the Indians burn Indian tobacco which 
they believe carries their messages up to The Great Father as it rises up 
into the sky. The Great Father put the tobacco here for some use and this 
is the use we make of it. Some of the old ladies smoke it in their pipes. 

The Indians also burn Indian tobacco to drive away evil spirits 
while they hold their ceremonies and worship The Great Father. After all 
the ceremonies are over all the food that is piled up in the middle of the 
ring is passed out and the Indians feast on it. 

North And South Clans 

The Peach Seed Game comes the next day. It is played between the 
north and south clans, the Deer and the Wolf. This is the way they have 
for thanking Him for^the seeds that they have raised and also to ask Him to 
restore and keep their seeds pure and sound until the next planting time. 
They use 150 beans, each side taking 75 beans apiece and playing until one 
side goes broke. Each player bets something the morning the Seed Game is 
to start. There are two persons, one from the north side and one from the 
south, who go around to the camps and take up bets for the game. Sunday 
is always Camp Day. All of the Indians are invited to come and strike camp 
on Sunday before the Green Corn Feast on Monday. 

There are twelve pot hangers who take care of the cooking for 
the feast - six women and six men. 

War Dance Comes Last 

The War Dance comes on the last day. The warriors come out of 
the brush with their feathers and paint and circle the ring beating the 
drum and singing war dance songs. Then they go inside and the ceremonies 
and dances start. They give thanks to The Great Father for the rain and 
ask for more. 

The dancers and singers are given tobacco, fruits, candy or any- 
thing the people want to give them for their work. The meaning of this 
War Dance is to give thanks to The Great Father for sending them rain and 
sunshine that made the seeds which they planted grow and produce the food 
on which they live, and also for their health as they walk from day to 
day. 

Palm Trees Restored 

Under the supervision of Indian workmen, the palm trees of Palm 
Springs, California, which were swept by fire last April, are coming to 
life again. Indians formerly burned wild palms to make them produce more 
fruit. The condition of the California palms this year bears out the wis- 
dom of this practice. 



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